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Version: 1.0

Putting it all together

ย Example

As software gets more complex, we resort to modularity and composition to keep it manageable. We can do the same with configs: suppose we want our working example to support multiple databases, with multiple schemas per database, and different UIs. We wouldn't write a separate class for each permutation of db, schema and UI, so we shouldn't write separate configs either. We use the same solution in configuration as in writing the underlying software: composition.

To do this in Hydra, we first add a schema and a ui config group:

Directory layout
โ”œโ”€โ”€ confโ”‚ย ย  โ”œโ”€โ”€ config.yamlโ”‚ย ย  โ”œโ”€โ”€ dbโ”‚ย ย  โ”‚ย ย  โ”œโ”€โ”€ mysql.yamlโ”‚ย ย  โ”‚ย ย  โ””โ”€โ”€ postgresql.yamlโ”‚ย ย  โ”œโ”€โ”€ schemaโ”‚ย ย  โ”‚ย ย  โ”œโ”€โ”€ school.yamlย ย  โ”‚ย ย  โ”œโ”€โ”€ support.yamlโ”‚ย ย  โ”‚ย ย  โ””โ”€โ”€ warehouse.yamlโ”‚ย ย  โ””โ”€โ”€ uiโ”‚ย ย      โ”œโ”€โ”€ full.yamlโ”‚ย ย      โ””โ”€โ”€ view.yamlโ””โ”€โ”€

With these configs, we already have 12 possible combinations. Without composition we would need 12 separate configs, and a single change (such as renaming db.user to db.username) would need to be done separately in every one of them.

This is a maintainability nightmare -- but composition can come to the rescue.

defaults:  - db: mysql  - ui: full  - schema: school

The resulting configuration would be a composition of mysql, full ui and the school database schema (which we are seeing for the first time here):

$ python my_app.pydb:  driver: mysql  user: omry  pass: secretui:  windows:    create_db: true    view: trueschema:  database: school  tables:  - name: students    fields:    - name: string    - class: int  - name: exams    fields:    - profession: string    - time: data    - class: int


  • The addition of each new db, schema, or ui only requires a single file
  • Each config group can have a default specified in the defaults list
  • Any combination can be composed by selecting the desired option from each config group in the defaults list or the command line.

Stay tuned to see how to run all of the combinations automatically (Multi-run).